POPULATION HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY THEN AND NOW Respond to  two colleagues  in one or more of the following ways: · Ask a

POPULATION HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY THEN AND NOW

Respond to 
two colleagues  in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.

· Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

· Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

· Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

· Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

· Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Respond to 
at least two colleagues on 
two different days in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.

· Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

· Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

· Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

· Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

· Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

·
PEER #1

·


Lucretia Dennise Sanders

·

Week 1: Initial Post

 

·
How has the practice and scope of population health changed? Include in your explanation the role of epidemiology in promoting the health of populations. 

· The scope of population health has undergone a significant evolution, shifting from a narrow focus on infectious disease control to a comprehensive approach that encompasses a wide array of factors influencing health outcomes. This broadened perspective recognizes that health is affected not only by medical care but also by social, economic, environmental, and genetic factors. As a result, population health now integrates diverse disciplines, including epidemiology, sociology, and environmental science, to address the complex interplay of determinants that contribute to the health of populations. This holistic approach emphasizes the importance of preventive measures, health promotion, and the need for policies that address health disparities and social determinants of health (Baba & Belinske, 2018). The goal is to improve health outcomes on a wide scale, moving beyond individual treatment to include interventions that target communities and societal structures, thereby acknowledging that health is a collective responsibility that requires multi-sectoral collaboration. 

·
What role did nurses play at the advent of these concepts in the 1800s and early 1900s? Be sure to differentiate between individual and population-based care. 

· In the transition from the 19th to the 20th century, nurses were at the forefront, steering the early days of individual care and pioneering population health initiatives. On a personal level, their work was hands-on and intimate, focusing on cleanliness, diet, and overall patient wellbeing essential practices during a time when medical solutions were not as advanced. Nurses provided much-needed care and comfort to patients, whether in hospitals or at home, ensuring the administration of treatments and offering a compassionate presence.  As the concept of care began to evolve, nurses ventured into the realm of public health, inspired by leaders like Florence Nightingale who advocated for improved sanitation, health policies, and addressing the wider social factors affecting health. They took to the streets, offering preventive care and health education directly to communities, helping to manage and prevent infectious diseases through home visits and vaccination drives (Reinking 2020). This era showcased nurses not just as caregivers to individuals but as vital agents of public health, underlining their indispensable role in nurturing patients and fostering community wellness. 

·
How can nurses play an effective role in advancing population health today? Discuss two ways you can make a difference at the population level. 

· Today, nurses stand at the crossroads of individual care and broader population health, wielding their expertise in ways that can significantly shape societal health outcomes. One key area where they shine is in their capacity as health educators and advocates. By incorporating health education into their daily interactions with patients, nurses empower people with the knowledge to make healthier lifestyle choices. This guidance can cover everything from diet and exercise to the importance of regular health screenings, playing a crucial role in preventing chronic diseases and enhancing overall well-being. Nurses have a vital part to play in tackling the broader social determinants of health through community involvement and public health initiatives. Whether it’s leading programs aimed at improving access to healthcare, advocating for better housing conditions, or supporting nutritional education, nurses are on the front lines of addressing the factors that contribute to health disparities. Their work in assessing community health needs, implementing targeted health programs, and fostering collaborations across sectors is instrumental in creating environments that promote healthy choices and equitable access to healthcare (Sciences et al., 2021). In these roles, nurses do more than just care for individuals; they are key drivers of systemic health improvements, championing the cause for a healthier, more equitable society. 

·
Reference:  

· Baba, Z., Belinske, S., & Post, D. (2018). Public Health, Population Health, and Planning: Ideas to Improve Communities. Delaware journal of public health, 4(2), 14–18. 

to an external site.
 

· National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; National Academy of Medicine; Committee on the Future of Nursing 2020–2030; Flaubert JL, Le Menestrel S, Williams DR, et al., editors. The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2021 May 11. 5, The Role of Nurses in Improving Health Equity. Available from: 

to an external site.
 

· Reinking C. (2020). Nurses transforming systems of care: The bicentennial of Florence Nightingale’s legacy. Nursing Management, 51(5), 32–37. 

to an external site.
 

·

·

·
PEER # 2

·


Andrea Nicole Gibson

· 9:31amFeb 26 at 9:31am

·
Manage Discussion Entry

· INITIAL POST

·
Population Health and Epidemiology – Then and Now

·
How has the practice and scope of population health changed? Include in your explanation the role of epidemiology in promoting the health of populations.

· Reducing health disparities is the core of population health and epidemiology. The former days [in medicine and nursing] that sought to reduce/eradicate diseases and health problems on an individual level have now progressed to utilizing methods to gain impact on a much larger scale. As such, to effectively and positively impact the negative health statistics that a given demographic faces, it is first necessary to know the statistical prevalence of such problems. Community-engaged research emphasizes collaboration and co-learning; reciprocal transfer of expertise; sharing of decision-making power; and shared ownership of the processes and products of research (Rhodes et al., 2018).

· Since the AIDS epidemic, COVID-19 is the biggest challenge that our societies have faced, and this epidemic has placed a considerable economic burden on the fiscal budgets of every country globally, with governments having to rapidly pivot resources and bring in extra protections for groups at risk while seeking care for COVID-19, with mixed success (Sarria-Santamera et al., 2021). Additionally, many healthcare systems worldwide not only contend with the financial challenges of healthcare costs, but also the fact that there continues to be a growing number of elderly living with complex comorbidities, along with the recognition of a failure to implement effective health promotion and disease prevention interventions (Sarria-Santamera et al., 2021). All of these factors must be taken into consideration when evaluating population health and epidemiology.

·
What role did nurses play at the advent of these concepts in the 1800s and early 1900s? Be sure to differentiate between individual and population-based care.

· Mary Seacole (1805–1881), one of the earliest contemporary nurses to care for a population, having developed her population health skills during the cholera and yellow fever outbreaks of the 1850s, providing patient care, applying epidemiological analysis, and implementing ventilation and proper nutrition (Wilson, Nichols and Rudner, 2023). Harriet Tubman (1822–1913) should forever be recognized for her achievements involving independent nursing work, as she developed homeopathic remedies for the sick slaves she encountered while leading them through the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. Furthermore, she nursed soldiers in hospitals and knew how to use root and herb extracts to treat patients (Wilson, Nichols and Rudner, 2023), a pioneer of her time whose herbal recipes have been passed down for generations, and are still part of many African American households today.

·
How can nurses play an effective role in advancing population health today? Discuss two ways you can make a difference at the population level.

· To become effective change agents, the nursing workforce needs to continually engage in and lead programs that improve the health of populations – one such way is to volunteer in community outreach programs and literally take our talents to the streets. Nurses don’t just perform tasks and carry out orders. We are well equipped to educate. So, when checking a blood pressure, explain to your patient (in layman’s terms) what those numbers actually mean and the health dangers that can come with hypertension. Additionally, nurses should remain fluent in nursing informatics and competencies, so that innovations within the field and education to the population at hand can be disseminated effectively and accordingly.

·
References

· Rhodes, S. D., Tanner, A. E., Mann-Jackson, L., Alonzo, J., Simán, F. M., Song, E. Y., Bell, J., Irby, M. B., Vissman, A. T., & Aronson, R. E. (2018). Promoting Community and Population Health in Public Health and Medicine: A Stepwise Guide to Initiating and Conducting Community-engaged Research. 
Journal of health disparities research and practice
11(3), 16–31.

· Sarría-Santamera, A., Yeskendir, A., Maulenkul, T., Orazumbekova, B., Gaipov, A., Imaz-Iglesia, I., Pinilla-Navas, L., Moreno-Casbas, T., & Corral, T. (2021). Population Health and Health Services: Old Challenges and New Realities in the COVID-19 Era. 
International journal of environmental research and public health
18(4), 1658. 

to an external site.
.

· Wilson, M., Stover, L., & Rudner, N. (2023). Nursing and the Evolution of Population Health. American Nurse Journal. 
18(6), 53-57. doi:10.51256/anj062353

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